Asked by: Alicia Williams
Using et al. For sources with one, two, or three authors, list all author names in your in-text citations (whether footnotes or author-date). For sources with four or more authors, use the first name followed by “et al.” In your Chicago style reference list or bibliography, list up to 10 authors.
Can you use et al in bibliography Harvard?
“Et al.” is used in Harvard style to indicate that a source has four or more authors. By using “et al.”, writers can also avoid having very long citations that list every single author.
What is et al in bibliography?
Academic writing is full of little conventions that may seem opaque to the uninitiated. One of these is the Latin phrase et al., an abbreviation meaning “and others.” It is used to shorten lists of author names in text citations to make repeated referencing shorter and simpler.
How many authors are needed for et al to be used in the bibliography?
Only when a work has six or more authors should the first in-text citation consist of the first author followed by et al. With five or fewer authors, all the author surnames should be spelled out at first mention. 2. Writers also make the opposite error by including all author surnames when et al.
How do you cite a bibliography with multiple authors?
List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author’s name (do not place an ampersand before it). There should be no more than twenty names in the citation in total.
Does APA Do et al?
APA in-text citations with multiple authors
If there are three or more authors, only include the first author’s last name followed by “et al.”, meaning “and others”. Group authors known by their abbreviations (e.g., CDC) are written in full the first time and are abbreviated in subsequent citations.
Do you use et al for 3 authors Harvard?
Harvard referencing citing three authors
It is generally agreed amongst universities that et al. is used when there are 4 or more authors. However for three authors there are two variations, one which uses et al. and the other that uses ‘and’ or “&”.
Can you use et al for 2 authors Harvard?
In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘et al. ‘
How do you cite 5 authors?
Use the word “and” between the authors’ names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses. In subsequent citations, only use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” in the signal phrase or in parentheses. In et al., et should not be followed by a period.
How do you cite 7 authors in APA?
More Than Seven Authors
List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the sixth author’s name, use an ellipsis in place of the author names. Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names.
How do you write 5 authors in a research paper?
Provide all the authors’ last names when you first refer to a document with 3-5 authors. Only list the first author with the Latin abbreviation “et al.” for any subsequent references. Example: Jones, Chavez, Jackson, and Chen (2010) duplicated…
How do you write bibliography?
Collect this information for each Web Site:
- author name.
- title of the publication (and the title of the article if it’s a magazine or encyclopedia)
- date of publication.
- the place of publication of a book.
- the publishing company of a book.
- the volume number of a magazine or printed encyclopedia.
- the page number(s)
What is a bibliography example?
Bibliography Examples for Newspaper and Magazine Articles
For newspapers and magazines, you should include the author, the article title (in quotation marks), the title of the newspaper or publication (in italics), the date of publication, and the page numbers from which the information was gathered. Doe, John.
What should be written in bibliography?
A bibliography is the list of sources you used to build your assignment. You should include anything you actively referenced in your work and anything you read as part of your project’s research and learning phase, even if you don’t explicitly cite them within your project.
Is bibliography and references the same?
A reference list is used with in-text referencing styles (e.g. APA). It includes the details of all the cited sources in alphabetical order by family name. A bibliography is used with footnote referencing styles (eg. Chicago A).
What are the three types of bibliography?
There are three common types of bibliography:
- Analytical bibliography.
- Enumerative bibliography.
- Annotated bibliography.
What is a bibliography Harvard style?
In Harvard style, the bibliography or reference list provides full references for the sources you used in your writing. A reference list consists of entries corresponding to your in-text citations. A bibliography sometimes also lists sources that you consulted for background research, but did not cite in your text.
How do you write a bibliography for a research paper?
Here is an example:
- Format: Author’s last name, first name. Book Title. Place of publication: publisher, date of publication.
- Format: Author’s last name, first name. “Title of the Article.” Magazine. …
- Format: Author. “Document Title.” Publication or Web site title. …
- Example: Dodman, Dr. Nicholas. “
What are the 4 types of bibliography?
There are four main types of enumerative bibliographies used for historical research:
- National Bibliography.
- Personal Bibliography.
- Corporate Bibliography.
- Subject Bibliography.
How is a bibliography organized?
A bibliography is a complete list of the references used in a piece of academic writing. The sources should be listed in alphabetical order by surname of the author or editors name. Where there are more than one author or editor, the name of the first should be used to place the work.
What comes first bibliography or references?
The Reference list and/or Bibliography will be the very last section of your paper, before the appendices. Finally, the last section of the dissertation, the Appendices.